Let
STATS OF THE ART
take care of STATS of your ART program, so you can better focus on the "success
rate"
of your "stateoftheart"
ART program.
We provide
Professional & Comprehensive Statistics Services for your ART / IVF / Embryology
Data, by Dr. Yavas (Ph.D. / HCLD) who is BOTH an "embryologist"
and a "statistical
consultant" (with track record of expertise in both),
as well as a
"researcher,"
a "publisher"
of
scientific
articles, and a "reviewer"
for scientific journals
(SEE DETAILS HERE).
We provide statistics services
to REVEAL YOUR POTENTIALLY HIGHER SUCCESS RATES for
marketing / advertising purpose.
We
provide statistics services
also
to DETECT "TRUE" MEANS of success rates (and other data) of factors, such as
embryologists,
catheters,
physicians, or any other factor, and
thus
to DETECT "TRUE" DIFFERENCES among them (for
performance review purpose), by analyzing your
entire data in an advanced, SINGLE STATISTICAL MODEL, statistically correcting (adjusting)
the arithmetic means for ALL factors (AS OPPOSED TO simple calculations and simple statistical comparisons of
"untrue arithmetic means" and AS
OPPOSED TO having your data analyzed by your own embryologists who have limited knowledge of statistics
and/or limited time) (SEE
DETAILS BELOW).
We
provide statistics services also
for PURPOSES OF QUALITY
CONTROL / QUALITY ASSURANCE, as
well as for RESEARCH,
PUBLICATIONS,
ABSTRACTS and PRESENTATIONS.
When we say, "we
provide statistics services," we mean "STATISTICS
IN THE TRUE SENSE." We do NOT mean just calculating and tabulating
"arithmetic means"
for visual comparison (which some people mistakenly call "statistics"). We do NOT EVEN mean
just comparing those "arithmetic means" by
simple
statistical tests one factor at a
time, as "arithmetic means" are STILL NOT "true means,"
EVEN IF compared by simple statistical tests.
Most IVF / ART centers only, and
simply, calculate / tabulate /
monitor their outcome rates (arithmetic means) (such as
pregnancy and live birth rates; either over all, or within factors such as embryologists,
catheters, etc.); and they visually compare those
"arithmetic means," which they mistakenly call “statistics” or “stats.”
THIS IS NOT “statistics,” because
"statistics" means not only
calculating those "arithmetic means" of such factors but also, and
most importantly,
CORRECTING
(adjusting) those "arithmetic means" for ALL the factors involved as well as
DETECTING the degrees of differences with “P
values” within and among corrected (adjusted) "true means" of such factors.
SEE HERE FOR AN EXAMPLE of how pregnancy data
(of embryologists and catheters) change after analyzing the entire data in
a SINGLE STATISTICAL MODEL / ANALYSIS / TEST, by simultaneously CORRECTING
(ADJUSTING) for the effects of BOTH FACTORS as well as for the effects of
PATIENT'S AGE.
INTERNATIONAL
REQUESTS ARE WELCOME.
PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINKS BELOW to go directly to those specific topics
found on this page;
OR,
alternatively, you can also scroll down this page at your own pace.
WHO WE ARE
We provide
Professional & Comprehensive Statistics Services for your ART / IVF / Embryology
Data (including pregnancy and live birth rates):

By Dr. Yavas WHO IS BOTH an "EMBRYOLOGIST"
and a "STATISTICAL
CONSULTANT" (with track record of expertise in both)  more
specifically, who is:

To REVEAL your potentially HIGHER SUCCESS RATES (for marketing / advertising purpose, while you still remain
perfectly compliant with SART’s advertising guidelines) (SEE
DETAILS BELOW).

To DETECT "TRUE" MEANS of success
rates (and other data) of factors, such as
embryologists,
catheters, and any other factor (as opposed to
simple "arithmetic means"),
by ANALYZING
your ENTIRE DATA in a SINGLE STATISTICAL MODEL / ANALYSIS / TEST (as
it should be with any statistical analysis), WHICH TAKES INTO ACCOUNT ALL the simultaneous FACTORS involved,
THEREBY statistically CORRECTING
(ADJUSTING) the arithmetic means within
each factor for ALL the other FACTORS involved (for performance
review purpose) (SEE
DETAILS BELOW) (SEE AN EXAMPLE of Statistical
Analysis HERE).

To
DETECT TRUE DIFFERENCES among those corrected / adjusted "true" means of
embryologists, catheters, and other factors (AS OPPOSED TO simply
comparing "arithmetic means," even by
simple statistical tests) (for
performance review purpose) (SEE
DETAILS BELOW) (SEE AN EXAMPLE of Statistical
Analysis HERE).

FOR QUALITY CONTROL / QUALITY ASSURANCE.

FOR RESEARCH / PUBLICATIONS / ABSTRACTS /
PRESENTATIONS.
WHY STATS OF THE
ART ?
Your ART / IVF success rates
(such as pregnancy and live birth rates) are the
results of many factors that are at work
simultaneously,
each of which may affect your outcomes differently;
those factors being embryologists, catheters, day of embryo transfer (Day 3
vs. Day 5), ease of transfer, type of embryo transfer catheter, type of
fertilization (insemination vs. ICSI), type of culture media, patient's age, and many
more.
Therefore, the
"arithmetic means" (and so
the "differences"
among those "arithmetic means") that
you are looking at (e.g., Embryologists 1 vs. 2; Catheters 1 vs. 2, etc.)
are
NOT "true means" (and so
NOT "true differences"). That is so EVEN IF you calculate and
compare those "arithmetic
means" by simple statistical tests,
UNLESS you
analyze the effects of ALL the factors at the same time
in a COMPLEX and SINGLE STATISTICAL MODEL / ANALYSIS / TEST (not separately),
i.e., UNLESS you
take into account the effects of ALL the factors,
by correcting (adjusting) those
"arithmetic means"
for the effects of ALL the factors. This
NECESSITATES
the use of
comprehensive / advanced statistical tests
as well as
advanced knowledge, skills and expertise both
in embryology and statistics, AS DESCRIBED BELOW.
Regardless of your purpose (be
it for staff performance review, quality assurance, or research), are you
STILL calculating "arithmetic means" for levels
within those factors (e.g., Embryologists 1 vs. 2; Catheters 1 vs. 2; etc.),
and
compare those "arithmetic
means" visually to detect any differences that may exist among them ?
Or have you taken it one
step further to compare those "arithmetic means"
not visually but
statistically (while
still dealing with "arithmetic means," and not with "true means")?
One option is to
run simple statistical
tests, such as "ChiSquare" or "TTest."
However, those tests ONLY work to compare TWO sets
of data at a time
(two levels of ONE factor), e.g., for two embryologists or for two catheters.
So if you have, for example,
more than two embryologists, you have to
repeat those tests multiple times for each pair of embryologists (i.e.,
for each pair of levels within each factor). So if you have, for example,
three embryologists, you have to repeat those tests to compare Embryologists 1
vs. 2; then for Embryologists 1 vs. 3; and then for Embryologists 2 vs. 3. The
same holds true for other factors. If you have,
for example, three catheters, you have to repeat
those tests to compare Catheters 1 vs. 2; then for Catheters 1 vs. 3; and then
Catheters 2 vs. 3.
You may get around this,
and be able to
calculate ALL those "arithmetic means" of
ALL embryologists (or of ALL catheters) by running a
single statistical test (a more complex test called "Analysis
of Variance, or ANOVA").
However, those simple tests still have to be run and repeated multiple times between
each pair of levels of the factor(s) to detect differences among them,
i.e., to compare Embryologists 1 vs. 2, Embryologists 1
vs. 3, and Embryologists 2 vs. 3. Furthermore,
like those simple statistical tests
discussed above ("ChiSquare" and "TTest"), the more complex ANOVA test also
works
for levels of ONLY ONE factor at a time (such
as for
"embryologist" factor, or for
"catheter" factor
at a time), and hence it is called "OneWay
ANOVA." Therefore,
you will have to repeat "OneWay ANOVA" test
multiple times for each factor separately (i.e., first for embryologists,
then for catheters, and so on).
However, EVEN IF you
calculate and compare those "arithmetic means"
by
simple statistical tests (such as "ChiSquare" or TTest")
and/or
by more complex "OneWay ANOVA" test, it is highly likely that
those embryologists' "arithmetic means"
are affected differently
by different catheters. Likewise, it is highly
likely that those catheters' "arithmetic means"
are affected differently by different
embryologists.
Therefore, the
"arithmetic means" (and so the
"differences"
among those "arithmetic means") (whether determined by simple statistical tests
or by "OneWay ANOVA") are
NOT "true means" (and so
NOT
"true statistical differences"), because you have analyzed the effect of
only
one factor at a time, and so you have
NOT taken into account the effects of ALL the other factors that
simultaneously affect the "arithmetic means." In other words, you have
NOT corrected (adjusted) those "arithmetic means"
for the effects of ALL the other factors that simultaneously affect
the outcome means.
Therefore, the
"arithmetic means" (and so
the "differences"
among those "arithmetic means") (whether determined by simple statistical tests
or by "OneWay ANOVA") are
NOT "true means" (and so
NOT
"true differences"), UNLESS you
analyze the effects of ALL the factors at the same time
in a SINGLE STATISTICAL MODEL / ANALYSIS / TEST
(not separately),
i.e., UNLESS you take into
account the effects of ALL the factors, by
correcting (adjusting) those "arithmetic means"
for the effects of ALL the factors.
Therefore, in order to
calculate the "true means" as
well as to detect the "true differences"
among those "true means," you need to analyze the effects
of ALL the factors at the same time in a SINGLE STATISTICAL MODEL /
ANALYSIS / TEST (not separately), i.e., you need to
take into account the effects of ALL the factors,
by correcting (adjusting) those "arithmetic means"
for the effects of ALL the factors.
So, for example,
if you want to see your
"true" pregnancy outcome as affected differently by TWO
FACTORS (e.g., embryologists and catheters), then you need to analyze
your entire data in a single statistical model / analysis / test using "TwoWay
ANOVA." Likewise, if you want to see your
"true" pregnancy outcome as affected differently by THREE FACTORS (e.g.,
embryologist, type of embryo transfer catheter, type of culture media), then you need to analyze your
entire data in a single statistical model / analysis / test
using "ThreeWay ANOVA." If you want to add a
fourth factor (e.g.,
day of embryo transfer), then you will be
using "FourWay ANOVA," and so on.
You can include in the same
single statistical model / analysis / test any number of factors you wish.
Likewise, you can include any number of levels
within each factor (e.g., two embryologists,
three catheters, four
types of culture media, etc.).
For example:

You can include
two factors with two
levels in each, and analyze them by "TwoWay
Analysis of Variance" in a "twobytwo
factorial design."

You can include
two factors with two and
three levels, and analyze them by "TwoWay
Analysis of Variance" in a "twobythree
factorial design."

You can include
three factors with two,
three and four levels, and analyze them by "ThreeWay
Analysis of Variance" in a "twobythreebyfour
factorial design."
If you also want to correct
(adjust) the arithmetic means for (i.e., to take into account)
the effects of
independent continuous
variables (in the same way as fixed factors), such as
patient's age or estradiol
levels, you can also include them in the same ANOVA test as "covariates," hence analyzing
the entire data by "Analysis of Covariance, or ANCOVA."
In order to determine the "true
means" and the "true differences," you can
(and you should) include in the same single
statistical model / analysis / test as many important
factors and covariates as possible.
Obviously, all the above
NECESSITATES
the use of complex and comprehensive
statistical tests as well as
advanced knowledge,
skills and expertise both in embryology and statistics, which is what the STATS OF THE ART
is here to help you with.
SEE HERE FOR AN EXAMPLE of how pregnancy data
(of embryologists and catheters) change after analyzing the entire data in
a SINGLE STATISTICAL MODEL / ANALYSIS / TEST, by simultaneously CORRECTING
(ADJUSTING) for the effects of BOTH FACTORS as well as for the effects of
PATIENT'S AGE.
WHAT STATS OF THE ART IS FOR
STATS OF THE ART is
your onestop place for
COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICS needs of your
“stateoftheart” ART / IVF Center.
STATS OF THE ART is the
place, where you can have your ART / IVF / EMBRYOLOGY
DATA comprehensively ANALYZED
by a person who is BOTH “EMBRYOLOGIST”
and “STATISTICAL CONSULTANT,” i.e.,
WELLVERSED in both EMBRYOLOGY and STATISTICS (with
advanced knowledge, skills and EXPERTISE IN STATISTICS) (SEE
HERE for Dr. Yavas' track record of expertise in both embryology and statistics).
ART / IVF
outcomes (data)
are the RESULTS of MANY FACTORS that are at work
simultaneously,
SUCH AS embryologist, catheter, patient's age, cause of infertility, length
of infertility, etc.; and the outcomes usually differ among those factors.
Therefore,
simply having your "arithmetic means" calculated,
SEPARATELY within each factor at a time, by your embryologists
(and in their spare times; which is, by the way, mistakenly called “statistics”)
only yields "UNTRUE (uncorrected)
MEANS," as it does NOT take into account
the simultaneous effects of ALL the other factors involved.
For example, if you are
simply calculating and comparing pregnancy rates among
different embryologists, you are NOT taking
into account the effect of different catheters, i.e., you are NOT
correcting (adjusting) each embryologist's pregnancy rate for the
"catheter effect." AS A RESULT,
you are NOT detecting the "TRUE" pregnancy rates of
your embryologists.
Likewise, if you are simply
calculating and comparing pregnancy rates among different
catheters, you are NOT taking into account
the effect of different embryologists, i.e., you are NOT
correcting (adjusting) each catheter's pregnancy rate for the
"embryologist effect." AS A RESULT,
you are NOT detecting the "TRUE" pregnancy rates of
your catheters.
Making the situation even
more complicated, not only
different embryologists and catheters are
involved in MULTIPLE STEPS of ART / IVF treatment
but also
MANY MORE FACTORS listed above are involved in
determining the ART / IVF outcomes.
For all those reasons, again,
simply having your "arithmetic means" calculated,
SEPARATELY within each factor at a time, by your embryologists
only yields "UNTRUE (uncorrected) MEANS," as it does NOT take
into account the simultaneous effects of ALL the other factors involved.
IN CONTRAST
to the above,
STATS OF THE ART allows you:

TO DETECT the "TRUE" MEANS
of your success rates (such as pregnancy,
live birth, fertilization, etc.) due to specific factors (such as
embryologists, catheters, patient's age, and any
other factor you may think of), AS OPPOSED TO simply calculating
"arithmetic means" and

DETECT the "TRUE"
DIFFERENCES among those "true means" of factors, AS OPPOSED TO simply
comparing "arithmetic means" (even by
simple statistical tests) that is still "NOT
meaningful" but "misleading."
STATS OF THE ART
accomplishes the above by
ANALYZING your ENTIRE DATA in a SINGLE STATISTICAL MODEL /
ANALYSIS / TEST (as it should be with statistical analysis of any
data),
which TAKES INTO ACCOUNT ALL THE SIMULTANEOUS FACTORS
INVOLVED, i.e., which
statistically CORRECTS (ADJUSTS)
the mean of each factor FOR ALL THE OTHER FACTORS INVOLVED.
Accordingly,
the above REQUIRES advanced knowledge, skills and expertise in statistics
as well as the use of advanced statistics / computer
programs, which STATS OF THE ART
offers in a professional manner.
Dr. Yavas at STATS OF THE ART, in addition to being a
researcher, is
wellversed both in STATISTICS & EMBRYOLOGY,
with proven track record of knowledge, skills and expertise in statistics
to perform the abovedescribed comprehensive / advanced statistical analyses /
tests on your data (SEE
HERE for Dr. Yavas' track record of expertise in statistics, embryology and
research).
WHY and HOW You Should Detect TRUE Differences Among Embryologists, Catheters,
and Other Factors at Your Practice, and WHY This is Critical
Most IVF /
ART centers only, and
simply, calculate / tabulate / monitor their
outcome rates (such as pregnancy, live birth, fertilization rates,
etc., either over all, or within factors
such as embryologists, catheters, etc.); and then
they visually compare those means; and
they mistakenly call this “statistics” or “stats.” THIS IS NOT
“statistics,” because
statistics means not only calculating those
outcome means of such factors but also, and
most importantly:

CORRECTING
(adjusting)
the means of such factors for other factors, and then

DETECTING the degree of
differences with “P values” among those corrected (adjusted)
means of such factors, which will be discussed later in greater detail.
FOR EXAMPLE,
a mere mean pregnancy rate of a given embryologist is NOT his/her TRUE mean
pregnancy rate,
UNLESS it is statistically corrected / adjusted for
the effect of the catheter (and other factors) involved.
The same is true for a given catheter, i.e., a mere mean pregnancy
rate of a given catheter is NOT his/her TRUE mean pregnancy rate, UNLESS
it is statistically corrected / adjusted for the effect of the embryologist
(and other factors) involved.
To make the matter
even more complicated, some
factors are involved NOT only in one single step
(such as embryo transfer) during the course of IVF treatment of a patient but
in several steps. For example, different
embryologists are involved in many & different steps, such as egg
retrieval, ICSI / insemination, embryo transfer, embryo freeze, embryo thaw,
etc. So it is not only about which embryologist
was involved but also which embryologist was involved in which steps
along the way.
To make the matter
even more complicated, embryologists and
catheters are NOT the only factors that determine the pregnancy rate outcome of
your practice. Other such factors
include patient's age, cause of infertility, length of infertility, type of gonadotropins used for stimulation, type of culture media, ease of embryo transfer, type of incubator, etc.
All of the above present
different scenarios of multiple independent factors
that may ALL affect the success rates differently from one another, which necessitates the use of comprehensive / advanced statistical models /
analyses / tests TO DETECT the TRUE MEANS
of those factors involved as well as TO DETECT the
TRUE DIFFERENCES among those factors.
SEE HERE FOR AN EXAMPLE of how pregnancy data
(of embryologists and catheters) change after analyzing the entire data in
a SINGLE STATISTICAL MODEL / ANALYSIS / TEST, by simultaneously CORRECTING
(ADJUSTING) for the effects of BOTH FACTORS as well as for the effects of
PATIENT'S AGE.
WHY You Should Take Advantage of STATS OF THE ART to Achieve all the
AboveListed Goals (and many more, such as for research / publication / abstract
purposes)
Dr. Yavas
at STATS OF THE ART is BOTH an
“EMBRYOLOGIST” and a “STATISTICAL
CONSULTANT,” with proven knowledge, skills
and expertise in BOTH "EMBRYOLOGY" and
"STATISTICS" (SEE
HERE for Dr. Yavas' track record of expertise in both embryology and statistics).
Embryologists are normally
hired for “embryology” laboratory work. As such,
they have either LIMITED, MINIMAL, or
NO knowledge, skills and expertise in statistics,
if any, to perform those comprehensive / advanced statistical analyses /
tests on your data described above.
Even if they had any knowledge,
skills and expertise in statistics, then they have
LIMITED TIME to do those statistics, as they are already and extremely busy
with their embryology work, often including some (or most) weekends.
HIRING
PROFESSIONAL STATISTICS COMPANIES (i.e., other than STATS OF THE
ART)
brings its own disadvantages, such as
paying “astronomical fees,” and “slow
turnaround time,” as they have no knowledge
of embryology / IVF / ART, and
you have to explain to them what your data
are about and what you want to see.
As this will take more of their time, on top of their actual time
for data analyses, you will end up paying EVEN HIGHER
FEES for their extra time.
WHAT IF
you could
HIRE an experienced
"EMBRYOLOGIST"
with EXPERTISE in STATISTICS (not to do
embryology work but exclusively to do “statistics
work” of your data – A Ph.D. / HCLD embryologist who has
almost 20 years of experience as embryologist
as well as who has
proven knowledge, skills and expertise in statistics
to perform comprehensive / advanced statistical analyses / tests on your
data?
Dr. Yavas
at STATS OF THE ART
has ALL the qualifications listed above,
with a strong
background both in statistics and embryology,
with
proven track record of knowledge, skills and expertise
in statistics to perform comprehensive / advanced statistical
analyses / tests on your data (SEE
HERE for Dr. Yavas’ track record of expertise in statistics):

Dr. Yavas is
a
Ph.D. / HCLD embryologist (and andrologist) with
almost 20 years of experience as embryologist
and IVF Laboratory Director, and so
he is wellversed in all ALL of embryology
(and andrology) (SEE HERE for more
information about Dr. Yavas).

Dr. Yavas
TOOK, and
PASSED with excellent grades,
THREE STATISTICS COURSES during his graduate studies (SEE
HERE for Dr. Yavas’ transcripts).
He then developed an affinity for
statistics over the years, and has
never lost touch with his understanding of statistics.

As a result, and during his career as HCLD Laboratory
Director / embryologist,
Dr. Yavas
has DESIGNED, PERFORMED and
PUBLISHED many RESEARCH STUDIES (some singlehandedly in their entirety)
in the field of IVF / ART (SEE
HERE for Dr. Yavas’ published research articles).

Dr. Yavas has singlehandedly
PERFORMED ALL the STATISTICAL ANALYSES in
ALL of his published research articles (SEE
HERE for Dr. Yavas’ published research articles).

As a result,
Dr. Yavas has been often INVITED to serve as “REVIEWER” for several
scientific journals, making
recommendations to authors
regarding statistical analyses
of their data in their submitted manuscripts. Those scientific journals inviting him to serve as
“reviewer” include
Fertility and
Sterility, Journal
of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, Journal
of Experimental & Clinical Assisted Reproduction,
Archives
of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and
Advances In Reproductive Sciences.
(SEE
HERE FOR DETAILS & for some examples of letters from those journals’ editors
inviting Dr. Yavas to review manuscripts submitted by other authors).
By having ALL your statistics needs met by
STATS OF THE ART, you will eliminate ALL the
disadvantages with hiring costly professional statistics companies.
Particularly
since, unlike those professional statistics
companies unfamiliar with your IVF / ART practice, Dr. Yavas
is already wellversed in ALL aspects of embryology,
you do not need to explain to him in great detail about your needs
for your statistics projects. He already knows most,
if not all,
of what you want to know. This means “fast
turnaround time.”
Gaikwad S, Garrido N, Cobo A, Pellicer A,
Remohi J. Bed rest after embryo transfer negatively affects in vitro
fertilization: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Fertil Steril. 2013
Sep;100(3):72935. Epub 2013 Jun 10
(PRINT
VERSION).
